Taxonomic hierarchy of Subkingdom Protozoa Goldfuss, Display of synonyms, alternative taxonomic positions, references, number of subtaxa, and. The following classification recommended by the Society of Protozoologists (Levine , ), the subkingdom Protozoa is divided into seven phyla. CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTOZOA 1. Unicellular 2. Chemoheterotrophs (get their energy by breaking down organic matter). 3. Most ingest their food; thus.


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Cyst stages can be airborne. Serious eye-threatening corneal ulcers due to Acanthamoeba species are being reported subkingdom protozoa individuals who use contact lenses.


The parasites presumably are transmitted in contaminated lens-cleaning solution. Amebas of the genus Naegleria, which inhabit bodies of fresh water, are responsible for almost all cases of the usually fatal disease primary subkingdom protozoa meningoencephalitis.

The amebas are thought to enter subkingdom protozoa body from water that is splashed onto the upper nasal tract during swimming or diving. Human infections of this type were predicted before they were recognized and reported, based on laboratory studies of Acanthamoeba infections in cell cultures and in animals.

The lack of effective vaccines, the paucity of reliable drugs, and subkingdom protozoa problems, including difficulties of vector control, prompted the World Health Organization to target six diseases for increased research and training.

Three of these were protozoan infections—malaria, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis. Although new information on these diseases subkingdom protozoa been gained, most of the problems with control persist. Protozoa are unicellular eukaryotes.

The Major Classification and Characteristics of Protozoa

As in all eukaryotes, the nucleus is enclosed in a membrane. In protozoa other than ciliates, the nucleus is vesicular, with scattered chromatin giving a diffuse subkingdom protozoa to the nucleus, all nuclei in the individual organism appear alike. One type of vesicular nucleus contains a more or less central body, called an endosome or subkingdom protozoa.

The endosome lacks DNA in the parasitic amebas and trypanosomes.

Classification of Sub-Kingdom Protozoa

In the phylum Apicomplexa, on the other hand, the vesicular nucleus has one or more nucleoli that contain DNA. Subkingdom protozoa ciliates have both a subkingdom protozoa and macronucleus, which appear quite homogeneous in composition.

The organelles of protozoa have functions similar to the organs of higher animals.

The plasma membrane enclosing the cytoplasm also covers the projecting locomotory structures such as pseudopodia, cilia, and flagella. The outer surface layer of some protozoa, termed a pellicle, is sufficiently rigid subkingdom protozoa maintain a distinctive shape, as in the trypanosomes and Giardia.

However, these organisms can readily twist and bend when moving through their environment. In most protozoa the cytoplasm is differentiated into ectoplasm the outer, transparent layer and endoplasm the inner layer containing organelles ; the structure of the cytoplasm is most easily seen in species with projecting pseudopodia, such as the amebas.

Contractile vacuoles for osmoregulation occur in some, such as Naegleria and Balantidium. Many protozoa have subpellicular microtubules; subkingdom protozoa the Apicomplexa, which have no external organelles for locomotion, these provide a means for slow movement.

The trichomonads and trypanosomes have a distinctive undulating membrane between the body wall and a flagellum. Many other structures occur in parasitic protozoa, including the Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, food vacuoles, conoids in the Apicomplexa, and other specialized structures.

Electron microscopy is essential to visualize the details of protozoal structure. They move with the help of flagella.