Rich deposits of copper, zinc, lead, gold, silver, tin, mercury, and molybdenum result. Stratabound mineral deposits in lake or oceanic sediments. minerals and energy resources class ten social science notes. Fossil fuel sources, such as coal, petroleum, natural gas and nuclear energy use exhaustible raw materials. Sustainable energy resources are only the renewable energy sources like solar, wind, hydro- geothermal and biomass.


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Because all life forms depend on plants for nourishment, either directly or indirectly, photosynthesis is the basis for life on Earth. The chemical reaction is so important, that everyone should know it as it is the way plants produce food from inorganic materials and is the basis for the vast majority of the food chain.

Note that if the reaction runs in mineral and energy resources, it produces energy.

GEOLOGY - Mineral and Energy Resources III | Course Outlines

Thus when oxygen is added to organic material, either through decay by reaction with oxygen in the atmosphere or mineral and energy resources adding oxygen directly by burning, energy is produced, and water and carbon dioxide return to the Earth or its atmosphere.

To produce a fossil fuel, the organic matter must be rapidly buried in the Earth so that it does not oxidize react with oxygen in the atmosphere. Then a series of slow chemical reactions occur which turn the organic molecules into hydrocarbons.

Hydrocarbons are complex organic molecules that consist of chains of hydrogen mineral and energy resources carbon.


Petroleum oil and natural gas consists of many different such hydrocarbons, but the most important of these are a group known as the paraffins. Paraffins have the general chemical formula: The resulting rocks are usually mineral and energy resources, yet, most petroleum occurs in much more permeable rocks like sandstones, limestones, or highly fractured rock.

Thus, it is apparent that petroleum migrates, like groundwater, and accumulates in these more permeable rocks.

  • Institute for Mineral and Energy Resources
  • Class ten social science geography minerals and energy resources

The process of petroleum formation involves several steps: Organic matter from organisms must be produced in great abundance. This organic mineral and energy resources must be buried rapidly before oxidation takes place.

Slow chemical reactions transform the organic material into the hydrocarbons found in petroleum.

As a result of compaction of the sediments containing the petroleum, the oil and natural gas are forced out and migrate into permeable rock.

Migration is similar to groundwater flow.

The petroleum must migrate into a reservoir rock that is in some way capped by impermeable rocks to prevent the petroleum from leaking out to the mineral and energy resources of the Earth.

Such a geologic structure is called a trap.


All of these processes must occur within a specific range of temperatures and pressures. If higher pressures and temperatures are encountered as a result of metamorphism or igneous activity, the petroleum will be broken down to other non-useful forms of hydrogen and carbon Oil Traps Because oil and natural gas have a low density they will migrate upward through the Earth and accumulate mineral and energy resources a reservoir only if a geologic structure is present to trap the petroleum.


Geologic structures wherein impermeable rocks occur above mineral and energy resources permeable reservoir rock are required. The job of petroleum geologists searching for petroleum reservoirs, is to find conditions near the Earth's surface where such traps might occur.

Oil mineral and energy resources can be divided into those that form as a result of geologic structures like folds and faults, called structural traps, and those that form as a result of stratigraphic relationships between rock units, called stratigraphic traps.

If petroleum has migrated into a reservoir formed by one of these traps, note that the petroleum, like groundwater, will occur in the pore spaces of the rock.