Bismuth Ferrite Nano powders. A Thesis. Submitted to The Council of the College of the standard of a thesis for the degree of master in Physics Sciences. Preparation, characterization and investigations of electrical and magnetic properties of some ferrites - Sagar Shirsath - Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation - Physics. Ferrites possess both of magnetic and electrical properties, which makes ferrites useful in many technological application. The basic magnetic and electrical.


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This field acts to magnetize the material in the direction opposite ferrites thesis its own magnetization, causing a magnetostatic energy which depends on the shape of ferrites thesis material.

This magnetostatic energy can be reduced by reducing the net external field through the formation of domains inside the material. In some materials the domain magnetization tends to align in a particular crystal direction the so-called easy axis.

Ferrites thesis

The material is easiest to magnetize to saturation or demagnetize from saturation if the field is applied along an easy axis. The energy difference between aligning the domain in the easy ferrites thesis another direction hard ferrites thesis is called magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy.

Anisotropy ferrites thesis is the energy needed to rotate the moment from the easy direction to a hard direction. For materials with cubic crystalline structure such as ferritesthe energy is expressed in terms of anisotropy constants and the direction to which the magnetization rotates.

A crystal is higher in anisotropy energy when the magnetization points in the hard direction rather than along the easy direction.


The formation of domains permits the magnetization to point along the ferrites thesis axis, resulting in a decrease in the net anisotropy energy. In a ferrites thesis field, the material may change its dimensions of the order of several parts per million.

This ferrites thesis in dimension results in what is called magnetostrictive energy, which is lowered by a reduction in the size of the domains, requiring the formation of more domains.

The magnetization in a domain changes by two mechanisms: In the first case, a certain amount of anisotropy energy is needed to rotate the magnetization in a crystal from the easy to ferrites thesis axis. In the second mechanism, the volume of the domain changes, changing its contribution to the bulk magnetization, while the magnetization direction is unchanged.

ferrites thesis


The change in the ferrites thesis intensity of a domain depends on how close its direction is ferrites thesis the direction of the applied field. If the magnetization direction is close, the intensity in the domain increases, whereas if it is far, the intensity decreases.

Change of domain magnetization by a domain rotation and b domain wall movement.

The domain volume changes due to motion of the domain wall. This movement is originated by a ferrites thesis that rotates the moments of the domain in line ferrites thesis the field, moving the center of the wall toward the domain opposed to the field. Consequently, the volume of the domains whose direction is favorable is increased whereas the domains with unfavorable direction decrease in volume [33].

Ferrites thesis

Magnetization curve and hysteresis loops A great deal of information can be learned about the magnetic properties of a material by ferrites thesis its ferrites thesis loop. A hysteresis loop shows the relationship between the induced magnetic flux density B and the magnetizing force H.


It is often referred to as the B-H loop. An example hysteresis loop is shown below Fig. The magnetization curve describes the change in magnetization ferrites thesis magnetic flux of ferrites thesis material with the applied field.

When a field is applied to a material with randomly oriented magnetic moments, it will be progressively magnetized due to movement of domain boundaries.

Initially, when no field is applied, the magnetic dipoles are ferrites thesis oriented in domains, thus the net magnetization is zero. When a field is applied, the domains begin to rotate, increasing their size in the case of the domains with direction favorable with respect to the field, and decreasing for the domains with unfavorable direction.