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Which way should the bells face in relation to the flow? Some Ductile Iron users specify that pipe be installed with the bell end facing the direction of flow.


This theory emanates from the pre-pressure joint era, when common joint sealing materials were cement mortar and jute, asphalt and jute, just asphalt, and various other materials.

The theory is predicated on the liquid flowing into the next pipe length prior ductile iron pipe fittings leaving the existing length.


From this testing it has been determined the properly assembled joint will withstand a 14 psi vacuum, a 1, psi internal pressure, and a psi external pressure without leakage.

Given these results, it is obvious flow direction within the pipeline is not an installation factor.

Ductile Iron Pipe

Why is there a peen pattern on Ductile Iron pipe? Ductile Iron pipe is centrifugally cast by pouring molten iron against the inside wall of an externally cooled rotating metal mold.


The deLavaud casting process incorporates a metal mold which has a peen pattern on its inside diameter. This peen pattern is transferred to the pipe during the casting process.

There are a number of reasons why the mold has this peen ductile iron pipe fittings.

Ductile Iron Pipe Fitting

Before casting each piece of pipe, an inoculating dry spray is distributed on the inside of the mold. The peen pattern on the mold acts as an ductile iron pipe fittings pattern that holds and evenly distributes the inoculant.

This inoculant allows the iron to solidify in a slower ductile iron pipe fittings that increases nodule count, helps refine the grain and nodular size, minimizes carbides, and makes the pipe more easily annealed.

The inoculant also acts as a deoxygenizer which ties up the oxygen on the surface of the mold, thereby preventing the formation of pin holes. The peen pattern also helps dispense thermal shock and additionally helps the mold pick up the molten iron by increasing surface friction between the mold and the iron as the mold is rotated.

The chill-free dual wet spray casting process ductile iron pipe fittings first spraying a binder on the inside of the mold followed by the inoculating dry spray.

Because of the binder, no peen pattern is required to hold and evenly distribute ductile iron pipe fittings inoculant. A key to the reliability of the seal is the cleanliness of the joint at the time of assembly.

DI Pipe Fitting

Larger sized buckets of lubricant are more likely to become contaminated at the jobsite and less likely to be discarded when they are. Ductile Iron Pipe ductile iron pipe fittings introduced to the market in Although nearly identical chemically, the two irons are quite different metallurgically.

Although tensile testing was not a requirement of this standard, a tensile test of gray cast iron pipe would give a test result of approximately 20, psi Ultimate Tensile Strength, with no measurable Yield Strength or Elongation.

In addition, Ductile Iron Pipe manufactured under this standard are required to meet ductile iron pipe fittings minimum of 7 ft lbs impact resistance by the Charpy test.

Cement Motar Lined Ductile Iron Pipe Fitting

Compare Gray Iron Pipe with an impact resistance of approximately 2 ductile iron pipe fittings lbs or less. The difference in the physical properties of these two materials is attributable almost entirely to the difference in the shape of the free graphite.

Some contractors tell us that push-on fittings are more difficult to install than mechanical joint fittings.