One area of such improvements have came to be called code excited linear predictive (CELP) coders and are, e.g., described B. S. Atal and M. R. Schroeder. code-excited linear prediction (CELP). • Open-Loop Speech Coders. – two-state excitation model. – LPC vocoder. – residual-excited linear predictive coder. with Code-Excited Linear Prediction. Authors: Bäckström, Tom. Provides a unified theoretical framework for analysis, treatment and development of speech.


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Its use is also the reason why most speech codecs Speex included perform badly on music signals.

MATLAB Software for the Code Excited Linear Prediction Algorithm

code excited linear prediction The different phonemes can be distinguished by their excitation source and spectral shape filter. On the other hand, fricatives such as the "s", "sh" and "f" sounds have an excitation signal that is similar to white Gaussian noise.

So called voice fricatives such as "z" and "v" have excitation signal composed of an harmonic part and a noisy part. This coding mode is, however, sensitive to the level of the quantization noise. A high-level noise code excited linear prediction affects the quality of the LPC analysis and reduces the coding efficiency.


Therefore, the method is not applicable to low-rate coders. The pitch analysis can also be performed in a backward mode using only past quantized data.

Code excited linear prediction codec for electrocardiogram. - PubMed - NCBI

This analysis, however, was found to be extremely sensitive to channel errors which appear at the receiver only and cause a mismatch between the transmitter and receiver. Two versions of the coder will be described in greater detail below.

The first includes forward-mode pitch loop and the second does not use pitch loop at all. The general structure of the coder is that of Code excited linear prediction.

The algorithmic details of the coder are given below. A fundamental result in MSE waveform coding is that the quantization noise has a flat spectrum at the point of minimization, namely, the difference signal between the output and the target is white.

On the other hand, the input speech signal is non-white and actually has a code excited linear prediction spectral dynamic range due to the formant structure and the high-frequency roll-off.

As a result, the signal-to-noise ratio is not uniform across the frequency range. The SNR is high at the spectral peaks and is low at the spectral valleys. Unless the flat noise is reshaped, the low-energy spectral information is masked by the noise and an audible distortion code excited linear prediction.

The standard form of this filter is: With g1 and g2, as in Eq. This means that the noise is now concentrated in the formant peaks and is attenuated code excited linear prediction between the formants. The idea behind this noise shaping is to exploit the auditory masking effect.

  • Algebraic code-excited linear prediction - Wikipedia
  • Introduction to CELP Coding
  • Multiband code-excited linear prediction (MBCELP) for speech coding - ScienceDirect
  • MATLAB Software for the Code Excited Linear Prediction Algorithm: The Federal Standard-1016
  • Code excited linear prediction codec for electrocardiogram.
  • Result Filters
  • Code-excited linear prediction

Noise is less audible if it shares the same spectral band with a high-level tone-like signal. Capitalizing on this effect, the filter W z greatly enhances the perceptual quality of the CELP coder.


In contrast to the standard telephony band of to Hz, the wideband speech considered here is characterized by a spectral band of 50 to Hz.

The added low frequencies enhance the naturalness and authenticity of the speech sounds.

Code-excited linear prediction - Wikipedia

The added high frequencies make the sound crisper and more intelligible. The higher code excited linear prediction rate and the added low frequencies both make the signal more predictable and the overall prediction gain is typically higher than that of standard telephony speech.

The spectral dynamic range is considerably higher than that of telephony speech where the added high-frequency region of to Hz is usually near the bottom of this range.