1. ELEMENTARY SURVEYING EQUIPMENT. Chain and Tape. Chains or tapes are used to measure distances on the field. Measuring Rod. A measuring rod (see Fig. 3) is a straight lath with a length varying from 2 m to 5 m. Plumb Bob. A plumb bob is used to check if objects are vertical. Carpenter Level. The various instrument used for the determination of the length of the line by chaining are as follows Metric surveying chain Tapes Arrows Pegs. Amongst the various methods of surveying, the commonly used method is called chain surveying. For less precise works chain is used whereas, for more.


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The length is 20m or 30m. Steel tape Linear tape A tape is made chain surveying instruments fiberglass or a steel strip and is 10m, 20m or 30m in length graduated in 10mm divisions and numbered at each mm 10 divisions It is used for measuring short distances iii.

Ranging poles Ranging poles are made up of wood or light metal and measure about 2m long at the top. The equipment has steel shades on its legs so it chain surveying instruments be stuck into the ground.


Ranging poles are painted red and white so that they can be easily seen even from a distance. They are used for making stations. Arrows Arrows are made of steel wire of diameter 4mm and their ends are bent into a circle where red cloth is tied to facilitate visibility.

They are used for showing points on the ground. They are also used for chain surveying instruments the number chain surveying instruments chains while measuring a chain line.

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Pegs Pegs are made of wood chain surveying instruments square by 50cm long and are used for permanently marking positions during survey vi. These mistakes could be avoided by performing the whole survey twice or thrice, but this may also be discovered by making chain surveying instruments measurements which are called proof lines or check lines.

Or it is such that two sides of a triangle appear less than the third side. For this reason, the length of the other diagonal AC scaled from the plan should be equal to its length measured on the chain surveying instruments.

Chain Surveying: Its Procedure, Instruments, and Principles.

The check lines indicate the correctness of the work. The chain surveying instruments of check lines depends upon the local circumstances, chain surveying instruments well as on discretion of the surveyor. In general, a check line is one who joins some fixed points on any two sides of a triangle.

The purpose of a tie line is two-fold, i. The details like corners of buildings, roads, fences, etc.


These measures are called offsets. Offsets are of two types. This is the most common method of locating objects. Ranging is necessary before starting chain surveying instruments measurement of a line whose length is more than the chain length so that the measurement is done in a straight line.

Instrument used for chain surveying

Offset rods An offset rod is a similar ranging rod and has a length of 3. They are round wooden rod shoed with a pointed iron shoe at the one end and provided with a chain surveying instruments or a hook at the other.

The hook facilities pulling and chain through hedges and other obstructions. They are very light in weight and can be carried from place to place easily.

The lower end can be easily sharpened to a point chain surveying instruments cut to any desired length when required.

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Plumb Bob The pump is a ball made of brass or bronze of the shape of a pear. It has a fine steel point. There is a hook at the top for attaching a chain surveying instruments of nylon. A typical offset rod is shown in Chain surveying instruments.

Laths Laths are 0. They are sharpened at one end and are painted with white or light colours. They are used as intermediate points while ranging or while crossing depressions.